What types of cement are there?
Well, there are eight different kinds of "Portland" cement which is the term used for the cement in concrete. These cement types are manufactured to meet both the chemical and physical requirements for applications which are specific. For most general uses, general Portland Type I cement is used, but it is not to come in direct contact with soil or ground water.
If there’s a hotter climate or if the soil or its ground water, contains sulfate in a moderate amount then Type II will be used. Type III is used when a high strength type is needed during an early stage, generally for 7 days or less. For concrete structures, which are massive, Type IV is used which is slow reacting because it has low heat hydration, but after two years it is stronger than other types that are fully cured quicker because of this. Type V is used if its poured in soil or ground water which has a high number of sulfates. Finally, if air-entrained concrete is needed then Types IA, IIA and IIIA are used depending on what the exact needs are.
What is the best way to remove stains from concrete?
There are two ways which stains can be removed, the wet or the dry method. The wet method uses a specific chemical or water mixture depending on what the stain is. The stain will either dissolve from the chemical treatment so that it can be cleaned up and removed or bleached if a water mixture is used. On the other hand, the dry method uses things like shotblasting, scabbling, grinding, sandblasting, flame cleaning and planing. If steel wire brushes are used, this can leave metal particles behind which leave rust stains later though so use them with care.
How can you tell if the amount of concrete is what you paid for?
One clue is the actual volume which is based on the cement, aggregate and water quantity when mixed. So, by using a sample of the ready mixed concrete, a unit weight test can be performed. A unit weight test is a calculation that is based on the fact that all the materials batched will be weighed by units. So, the weight of sample of a small amount of product can be used to determine the total weight. Usually the sample used is a quarter of a cubic foot. Also, a lot of concrete producers will make sure that their customers aren’t going to be short-changed by producing about ½ percent over the yield ordered.
For a good concrete mix, what’s the recommended proportions?
By using a wide variety of mixture proportions, a good solid concrete mixture can be made depending on needs. A good rule to follow is: Use a minimum of six bags of cement content to a cubic yard of cement. Use 6 gallons of water maximum for one bag of cement. Keep the concrete moist, this is known as curing, for no less than 6 days. Plus, you need an air content of 6 percent if there will be thawing and freezing.
How do you control how strong the concrete is going to be?
To make concrete stronger you simply add strength. To do this you add more cement. The ratio of water to cement in the cement paste will bind the aggregate which is what makes it stronger. So, the higher the ratio is of water, the weaker the concrete will be. The more cement which is used, the stronger it will be. Water is still needed though because if the cement is too dry it cracks or crumbles
How is cement made?
Shale, iron ore, limestone and clay are all mined and then crushed together, screened and then placed into a cement kiln. These materials form small balls which are called “clinkers” after being heated to very high temperature. The balls are then grounded very finely to make Portland cement.
What are some of the decorative finishes which can be used on concrete surfaces?
If white cement is used, pigment color can be added before or after the concrete is put in place. Colorful aggregates can also be used where they are exposed on the surface. You can additionally use chemical stains. There can be textured finishes furthermore such as rough gravel or smooth polished concrete also. Patterns can be stamped, rolled, scored or inlaid to resemble anything from stone to tile to brick too.
What’s the difference between concrete and cement?
Cement is an ingredient of concrete even though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Concrete is made from paste and aggregates. The paste is made from water and cement and the aggregates are made from crushed stone or gravel and sand. Portland cement is the generic term for the cement used in virtually all concrete.
Why does the concrete get cracks in it?
The concrete dries out overtime. So, as the concrete dries out it shrinks. This pulls the concrete apart because you must have a small ratio of water in concrete even after curing, though it is too small of an amount to be observed by a person.
Does concrete harden under water?
Portland cement will harden under water since it’s a hydraulic cement that hardens because of a chemical reaction with the water.
Knowing some answers to basic questions about concrete will help you then decide how much to order for concrete delivery in Cedar Hills, De Soto and surrounding areas and what type to order.